Signal processing is an enabling technology crucial to all areas of defence and security. It is called for whenever humans and autonomous systems are required to interpret data (i.e. the signal) output from sensors. This leads to the production of the intelligence on which military outcomes depend. Signal processing should be timely, accurate and suited to the decisions to be made. When performed well it is critical, battle-winning and probably the most important weapon which you’ve never heard of. With the plethora of sensors and data sources that are emerging in the future network-enabled battlespace, sensing is becoming ubiquitous. This makes signal processing more complicated but also brings great opportunities. The second phase of the University Defence Research Collaboration in Signal Processing was set up to meet these complex problems head-on while taking advantage of the opportunities. Its unique structure combines two multi-disciplinary academic consortia, in which many researchers can approach different aspects of a problem, with baked-in industrial collaboration enabling early commercial exploitation. This phase of the UDRC will have been running for 5 years by the time it completes in March 2018, with remarkable results. This book aims to present those accomplishments and advances in a style accessible to stakeholders, collaborators and exploiters.